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Dvara Analysis Weblog | Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise


Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise have change into one of many fashionable modes for patrons to make retail purchases in India. These merchandise are being positioned as challengers to bank cards that may make credit score extra accessible to clients at little to no price. But, the precise prices clients could incur haven’t been documented within the Indian context. Our report titled “The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise: Understanding the completely different sorts of prices Indian clients can incur in utilizing BNPL merchandise” makes an attempt to fill this hole.

Our findings on this report put the highlight on key facets of the BNPL market, primarily –

    i. Financial prices that clients could incur once they use BNPL merchandise.

    ii. Conduct-related issues that BNPL clients could face and the following non-monetary prices that they might incur.

These findings are supposed to assist stakeholders achieve extra perception into the BNPL market and determine buyer safety gaps that should be addressed.  

Analysis Methodology

The methodology we comply with on this examine presents a helpful technique to monitor and determine buyer safety issues in nascent product markets. We examined the BNPL market primarily by way of two completely different approaches–

  1. Analysing phrases and situations (T&Cs) of ten distinguished Indian BNPL suppliers

    . We used the insights from this evaluation to (a) develop a financial prices matrix presenting the completely different prices clients could incur and (b) determine buyer safety gaps that may create important dangers for patrons.

  2. Utilizing BNPL merchandise personally.

    We registered and made a purchase order with a BNPL product from 5 of the ten suppliers. This helped us perceive the client expertise with every product and determine potential divergence with the costs and provisions talked about within the T&Cs. These experiences helped us refine our findings in (1).

Findings and takeaways for buyer safety

Our findings counsel that clients utilizing BNPL incur financial prices akin to prices of utilizing bank cards and are inclined to opposed dangers rising from gaps in buyer safety. A few of our key findings embrace–

    a. The prices clients incur might be divided into pre-default and post-default prices.

    Pre-default prices embrace curiosity prices, processing charges, autopay charges, carry ahead curiosity, becoming a member of charges and card-related prices. The APR on BNPL merchandise various between 0 to 36%, processing charges various between 0 to fifteen% of the sanctioned quantity, and different prices various between INR 0 to INR 500. Publish-default prices contains late charges various with the excellent quantity and was normally between INR 0 to INR 2000. Nonetheless, for some suppliers, like Unicard, the charges went as excessive as INR 3000 for dues between INR 2 lakhs to INR 10 lakhs. It’s unclear if the APR charged by BNPL suppliers is inclusive of all prices. If not inclusive, the financial prices of BNPL merchandise could also be nearer to that of bank cards. This must be validated with a bigger examine of prices incurred by clients over time

    b. BNPL suppliers’ T&Cs are misaligned with key buyer safety rules, contravening key conduct obligations

  • Some suppliers’ T&Cs and Key Details Statements (KFS) omitted key particulars in regards to the BNPL product like the costs clients can incur.

  • Financiers retained the precise to reject purposes unilaterally with out giving causes for rejection.

  • Some suppliers explicitly maintain clients chargeable for assessing suitability of the credit score being provided. Different suppliers are silent about who’s accountable to evaluate suitability. ​

  • Some suppliers’ T&Cs had probably illegal provisions – like a waiver of buyer safeguards beneath usury legal guidelines and different legal guidelines referring to charging of curiosity. ​

  • Credit score reporting practices are hardly ever disclosed to clients. Suppliers additionally don’t disclose how utilizing BNPL merchandise can have an effect on clients’ credit score scores. 

  • Suppliers’ T&Cs have broad and ambiguous clauses relating to private knowledge use, giving suppliers leeway for utilizing private knowledge for broad functions. 

  • Some suppliers talked about the potential for charging an undisclosed, non-refundable processing charges for buyer purposes.

c. The onboarding course of for all suppliers was clean and totally digital however omitted essential details about the product

(like its prices). This data was not prominently displayed at first of the onboarding course of. These particulars had been solely accessible on the suppliers’ web sites.

d. BNPL suppliers could have to align with the Fee and Settlement Techniques Act, 2007 (PSSA).

At present, some BNPL suppliers appear to be settling funds straight with retailers with out due authorisation from the RBI.

e. BNPL suppliers can also have to align with the RBI Grasp Route on issuing bank cards, 2022.

It seems that BNPL merchandise could fall inside the scope of the definition of a bank card beneath the RBI’s Grasp Route on issuing bank cards launched in April 2022. If that’s the case, BNPL suppliers could must make important adjustments to their practices and enterprise fashions.

Our findings counsel that the financial and non-monetary prices related to utilization of BNPL merchandise are substantial and usually are not at all times recognized to the client earlier than subscribing to the product. The opacity across the prices mixed with some probably illegal clauses, reveal critical buyer safety dangers that BNPL debtors are uncovered to. These findings refute the narrative of BNPL merchandise as low- to no-cost credit score options to bank cards.

Additional, The BNPL promise of credit score inclusion seems to be weakened by a set of things. The primary set of things could make BNPL merchandise much less reasonably priced for patrons. These components embrace (a) presumably greater delinquency charges amongst BNPL clients which may in flip improve credit score prices for suppliers and curiosity prices for future clients, and (b) a rise in prices to clients because of adjustments in BNPL supplier enterprise fashions and retailers’ pricing preparations. One other set of things could make BNPL merchandise and credit score much less accessible. These embrace (a) unexplained rejection of shoppers’ BNPL purposes, and (b) inconsistent reporting of shoppers’ repayments to credit score bureaus.  

The methodological strategy adopted on this examine can present a helpful template for market monitoring of nascent however quickly rising monetary merchandise. As an example, our findings from the examine counsel that clients are at a threat of (a) unknowingly incurring debt, (b) borrowing credit score that’s unsuitable for them, and (c) being topic to potential harms from weaker buyer safety safeguards. These findings align with these from regulatory investigations into the BNPL market in markets with extra mature BNPL merchandise. Regulators and suppliers should pay attention to these penalties to plan measures to enhance buyer safety within the BNPL market. 

The total report is accessible right here.

Cite this weblog:


Srinivas, M., & Prasad, S. (2022). Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Srinivas, Madhu and Srikara Prasad. “Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Srinivas, Madhu, and Srikara Prasad. 2022. “Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise.” Dvara Analysis.



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